A History of Jewish Life in Fremont and Surrounding Areas
By Austin Reid
Top: Leaders of the Beth Israel Sisterhood in 1962
Photo courtesy of The Fremont News-Messenger
Bottom: On Left Dryfoos & Bach Store, on Right Purim Play at Beth Israel
Photo on right courtesy of Dennis Newman
Introduction: Fremont’s Earliest Jewish Residents
While the closing of Temple Beth Israel in 1980 marked an end to organized Jewish life
in Fremont, it did not mean that Jews ceased to live in the town. Similarly, Fremont’s Jewish
history does not begin on October 31, 1934, when several families came together at the home of
Arthur and Dora Gilberg to discuss forming a new congregation, Beth Israel. Rather, Jews are
known to have lived in Fremont since the 1840s, and there is evidence to suggest that by 1856
Jewish religious services were being organized in town. During this year, The Occident, a Jewish
newspaper published in Philadelphia, indicated that Fremont was among the cities and towns in
Ohio with a Jewish congregation. While no other references to this nascent congregation
survive, its members would likely have met in private homes or rented spaces. A local
newspaper, The Fremont Journal, did, however, begin to publish in 1855 periodic notices from
Abraham Gusdorf indicating that his store would be closed on various autumn days to observe
Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. Like all Jewish holidays, the dates of Rosh Hashanah, the
Jewish new year, and Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, are determined each year through a
lunar calendar. This creates some annual variability in holiday observances when dated by the
Gregorian calendar and likely contributed to the need for public notice about the dates.
Abraham and Helen Gusdorf are the oldest Jewish family known to have lived in
Fremont. Abraham arrived in Fremont in 1848 and he found work as a trader dealing in a variety
of products including grain, hides, textiles, and wool. It is not known with certainty, however, if
Abraham was married to Helen before he arrived in Fremont. The couple was wed by 1855, and
by 1860 their growing family was joined by Abraham’s older brother, Moritz. Abraham, Helen,
and Moritz were all natives of Central Europe and they numbered among the over one million
immigrants from German-speaking regions of Europe who emigrated to the United States
between 1848 and 1858. This wave of immigration had been sparked by failed political
uprisings and it included among its members tens of thousands of Jews. By 1860, Abraham and
Moritz had established the Gusdorf Brothers Packing Company, which dealt in grain. By 1903,
the company was renamed the American Stock Food Company. The Gusdorf family also grew in
size and its younger members included Carrie, Hattie, Isaac, Moses, Samuel, and Solomon.
In 1850, Isaac and Marcus Dryfoos arrived in Fremont and opened a store which they
named I. and M. Dryfoos & Clothiers. Both brothers were immigrants from Central Europe, and
by 1857, Marcus had married Rosetta Schwarzenberg, who was also born in Europe. Simon
Dryfoos joined his older brothers in Fremont during 1866. Around the time of Isaac and
Marcus’ arrival, Henry and Lewis Oppenheimer also came to Fremont to begin a business. The
Oppenheimer store sold dry goods and carried medicines among its merchandise. The
Oppenheimer family would grow in Fremont and its members would also be among the first to
be buried in the Jewish section of Oakwood Cemetery. While no records survive to indicate
when this section was created for the Jewish community, the first burial took place in 1885 when
Babetha Levy was laid to rest. In 1887, Cora Oppenheimer became the second person buried
The Civil War and Reconstruction Period: A Time of Growth for Fremont’s Jewish
When the Civil War broke out on April 12, 1861, Fremont’s Jewish community likely
numbered no more than four families. In addition to the families already discussed, it is known
that a man named Feist Emrich worked with the Gusdorf Brothers by 1860. In 1870, Feist
donated to the Jewish Orphan Asylum in Cleveland. This donation, along with Feist’s association
with the Gusdorf family, likely points to him being a Jew. No local Jews are known to have
served in the Civil War. In 1875, however, a man named Mayer Frankel moved to Fremont along
with his wife, Fannie, and their children Amelia, Estella, and Sarah. Mayer was a veteran of the
Union Army and he was active in Fremont’s Grand Army of the Republic chapter. Before the
war, Myer lived in Philadelphia, where he settled in 1860 after immigrating from Bavaria. Fannie
was also an immigrant and was born in Austria. After arriving in Fremont, the couple had two
additional children, Ernest, and William. One of these sons, William, would establish a women’s
clothing store named Frankel’s. This business would remain open until the mid-1960s.
Amelia and Mayer were only one of several new Jewish residents to arrive in Fremont by
1877. During the war, Jacob Joseph arrived in Fremont with his wife, Esther. While Jacob began
his time in Fremont as a peddler, by 1864 he had obtained enough capital to build his own store,
Joseph’s. This shop would grow to encompass three stories and become an institution on the
corner of Garrison and South Front streets until it ultimately closed in 1984. Another new
entrepreneur in Fremont was Louis Bach. In 1873, Louis settled in Fremont to take a position
with Dryfoos Clothiers. He eventually became a full partner in the firm, and in 1920 its sole
owner. In 1882, Louis married Barbara Kahn and the couple had three children. Bach would be
a familiar name in Fremont for over 50 years. By the time Bach Clothing Company was sold in
1927 to the Uhlman Company, it was Fremont’s oldest clothing store. In his obituary, Louis was
described as a “pioneer clothier in northern Ohio.” Other, less famed Jewish clothing merchants
in Fremont by 1870 included Henry Munk and Lewis Youngman. Peddlers included Jacob Dach,
Louis Jandorf, and Moses Solomon.
In addition to finding work as clothiers, peddlers, and dry goods merchants, some early
Jewish residents of Fremont were tobacconists. In 1877 Jacob Youngman, the son of Babet and
Lewis Youngman, began working at Charles Barth’s tobacco store on Front Street while in high
school. Seven years later, Jacob purchased the store and renamed the enterprise Youngman’s
Cigar and Tobacco. The store would remain open for 63 years. Jacob was active in the
community as a member of the local Elks Lodge and a charter member of Rotary. He was also a
trustee of the Birchard Public Library, which was opened in 1874. It is possible that Jacob’s
interest in the Birchard Library was inspired by his sister, Bertha, who was a teacher in Fremont
from 1887 until her retirement in 1932. Bertha was also civically engaged as a charter member of
the Fremont Federation of Women and a volunteer with the Women’s Board of Memorial
Hospital. The Memorial Hospital, which continues to serve patients into the 21st century, was
opened in 1918. It is also of note that another Jewish teacher, Samuel Wertheim lived in Fremont
by 1880. Samuel was an immigrant from Germany who taught music. He was married to
Rebecca, and the couple had five children.
In 1898, Jacob wed Tillie Mandelbaum, a native of Cincinnati. The couple had one child,
a daughter named Hortense. Hortense married Rudolph Rosenbush in 1923, and the couple
carried on the Youngman’s after the death of Jacob in 1939. Another Jew who was involved in
the tobacco business was Jake Dach. Jake, who was born in 1878 in Fremont, was the son of
Elizabeth and Simon Dach. His parents, who had both emigrated from Central Europe, were wed
in 1868. Simon was likely the brother of the older, previously referenced Jacob Dach, and
similarly, he was a peddler in Fremont by 1870. Jake would work as a clerk at Youngman’s for
The Closing Years of the 19th Century and the Establishment of the Fremont Hebrew
By the early 1880s, the children of Fremont’s earliest Jewish residents were reaching
their mid-20s. Marcus and Rosetta Dryfoos had at least three children, Isaac, Louis, and Elenora.
Isaac would work in the clothing businesses and go on to serve as a member of Fremont’s Health
Board in his later years. Louis attended the University of Michigan and later the University of
Zurich. Following his studies, Louis moved to New York City, where he worked as a chemist. He
would invent a process for creating artificial rubber. Elenora lived in Fremont throughout her
life, and she is buried in the Jewish section of Oakwood Cemetery. Hattie, Isaac, and Moses
were the only children of Abraham and Helen Gusdorf to remain in Fremont as adults. Hattie
never married and she helped her brother, Isaac manage several investment properties in
Fremont. She was also active with the Memorial Hospital Board, Fremont Federation of Women,
and Cosmopolitan Club, which served a literary purpose. Isaac continued to manage the
family’s business, which was known as the Fremont Storage Company by the 1920s, and he was
a member of the Elks, Kiwanis, and Masons. Moses attended Cornell University before
returning to Fremont to work at the Gusdorf Brothers Packing Company. He also became
involved with the First National Bank and was elected its vice president in 1895.
By 1885, there is evidence that Jewish residents of Fremont were organizing to form
what would become known as the Fremont Hebrew Congregation. This congregation was
officially incorporated on February 16, 1891, with Leon Jandorf serving as president and Louis
Bach as treasurer. Twelve other individuals signed the Articles of Incorporation. Their names
were Jacob Joseph, Isadore Cohn, Jacob Dach, Moses Solomon, Simon Wolf, Henry Munk,
Simon Dach, Mayer Frankel, Samuel Wertheim, Simon Dryfoos, Simon Oppenheimer, and
Henry Hayman. The group rented space inside the Knights of Honor hall located in the Dryfoos
block. In 1893 a Sunday school was organized by the women of the congregation and Rabbi
Emanuel Schreiber of Toledo was hired to visit Fremont once a month to teach and lead religious
services. The congregation’s first president, Leon Jandorf was the son of Caroline and Louis.
Caroline’s maiden name was Solomon, and she was likely related to Moses Solomon. By 1931,
Leon would move to Buffalo along with his sister, Cora. Another sister, Bertha, moved to
Buffalo shortly after 1907 following her marriage to Adolph Block.
Moses and Minnie Solomon were especially active in supporting the Fremont Hebrew
Congregation. Moses would serve for many years as the congregation’s president, and he was
known for his religiosity. An additional note is that during Solomon’s later life, he helped to
create the A.C.S Jeavons Company, which was incorporated three years after his death in 1940.
This company would become a significant contributor to the local economy and maintain a
presence in Fremont until 1981. Other known members of the Fremont Hebrew Congregation
included Moses Gusdorf, Joseph and Ida Harskowitz, and Jacob and Tillie Youngman.
Joseph and Ida Harskowitz are notable for being among the first Jewish immigrants from
Eastern Europe to reside in Fremont. This wave of immigration began after 1880 in response to
violent outbreaks of anti-Jewish persecution in the Russian Empire. By 1924, when the United
States Congress passed The Johnson-Reed Act to significantly limit further immigration, over
two million Jews had immigrated to the United States. Joseph made a living in Fremont as a
scrap metal dealer, and this line of work would be undertaken by several other Jewish families in
Fremont during the early decades of the 20th century. Individuals supported through the scrap
metal trade included Anthony and Rena Wolf, Herman and Joseph Levinger, and Bessie and
Harry Linver. It is possible that the same business sold by the Harskowitz family to Joseph and
Herman Levinger around 1917 was later owned by Harry Linver since he too conducted his
scrap yard on Carbon Street. Several other Jewish residents in Fremont during the 1890s engaged
in entrepreneurial pursuits. These individuals included Hattie and Isadore Cohn, Aaron and Irene
Mahler, and Josephine and Simon Wolf. Isadore worked as a butcher alongside his father,
Samuel. His mother, Maria also lived with the family. Aaron owned the Empire Notion Store on
South Front Street for many years. His two children, Estella, and Jona both moved away from
Fremont as adults. Simon was a pharmacist on Croghan Street until 1899. Following his death in
1900, Josephine and her son, Louis moved to Toledo.
Jewish Life In and Around Fremont During the Early 20th Century
In addition to religious services, Jews in Fremont also began to organize new social and
service organizations by the early 1900s. These included a sewing circle for women and a youth
group that studied Jewish history and provided choral music for religious services. A formal
Ladies Auxiliary for the Fremont Hebrew Congregation also existed by 1907. In this same year,
Fremont’s Jewish population was estimated to number approximately 45 people or about half a
percent of the town’s overall population. Between 1906 and 1909 Fremont’s Jewish
congregation was a member of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations. Sunday school
classes continued to be organized, and in 1903 a class of four graduated. Bertha Youngman and
Hannah Mier were among the teachers.
By the early years of the 20th century, Jewish families living in nearby towns including
Fostoria, Norwalk, and Tiffin are known to have participated in some of the religious services
and other communal activities organized in Fremont. Jewish families outside of Fremont would
also play an important role in the later growth of Temple Beth Israel. In Fostoria there were
Henry Kohn and Louis Preis. Henry, who was an immigrant from Austria, owned a dry goods
store and was married to Isabelle. Louis Preis was also a businessman who had moved to
Fostoria. Before the move, he had lived in Philadelphia with his wife, Pearl. The couple arrived
in Fostoria around 1915 to open the Preis Store, which sold women’s clothing. This store would
remain in Fostoria until at least the late 1960s and would pass to Louis’ relative, Jacob. In
Norwalk lived Henry and Rebecca Pohl, who opened Pohl’s Menswear in 1911. This store
would continue on Main Street until 1985. Louis Oppenheimer, the son of Rose Gusdorf and
Simon Oppenheimer, also worked in Norwalk for a time before moving to New York. In Tiffin,
there was Bertha and Joseph Gottlieb and their relatives, Cora, and Leon Stricker. Both families
supported themselves through their involvement in the clothing business. The first members of
the Stricker family to live in Tiffin were Leon’s parents, Amelia, and Barney, who arrived around
1852 to open Stricker’s. Joseph Gottlieb was related to Leon through his marriage to Bertha,
and he operated a separate clothing store on Washington Street. Another Jewish couple living in
Tiffin by 1909 were Isaac and Sarah Hurwitz. This couple had at least four children, and they too
were supported by Isaac’s work as a clothier.
By the time World War I broke out in 1914, Fremont’s Jewish population had grown to
50. While modest in size, members of the Jewish community are recorded as doing their part to
support the war effort after the United States entered the conflict in 1917. Tillie Youngman
volunteered with the local Red Cross chapter and she was active in Liberty Loan Drives.
Samuel Cohen, a native of Fremont, served abroad, but he may have lived in Dayton by the time
of his enlistment. Locals also worked to support refugees from the conflict. Following the war,
two Jewish veterans, Louis Michles and Rudolph Rosenbush moved to Fremont. Louis owned a
retail surplus store and would help his brothers, Joseph and Marcus establish the Michles
Company which dealt in scrap metal. This business would remain in Fremont until 1988. It is
also of note that Marcus served in the United States Army from 1920 to 1924. Rudolph worked
at Youngman’s Cigar and Tobacco after his marriage to Hortense in 1923. These men were not
the only Jewish entrepreneurs to become involved in business interests in Fremont during the
1920s and early 1930s. One of the most notable businessmen of the era was Solomon Hyman,
who established Fremont’s S.E. Hyman Company in 1923.
Solomon was born in Fremont in 1886 and he was the son of Amelia and Henry Hyman,
who were both German immigrants. Amelia and Henry both died before Solomon’s thirteenth
birthday leaving him and a housekeeper, Katie Hakelz, to care for his siblings, Henrietta and
Julius. Katie would take the last name Hyman before her death. The S.E. Hyman Company
began by crafting clothing pieces but soon shifted its production to creating upholstered
coverings for car seats and other accessories. Linings for winter coats were also made. S.E.
Hyman would be a significant employer in Fremont until the 1980s. At its largest the company
employed hundreds of people. After Solomon’s death in 1948, his wife, Dorris, took over
management of the company. Later the company would pass to Richard and Nannette Newman.
Nannette was the daughter of Solomon and Dorris. In addition to Solomon Hyman, Harry
Krohngold and Samuel Lichtenstein also opened businesses in Fremont during the 1920s.
Kronhgold sold shoes and Lichtenstein clothing.
In 1920, the Ladies Auxiliary of the Fremont Hebrew Congregation was reconstituted as
the Temple Sisterhood. By 1922, the organization numbered twelve members who worked to
support a variety of local and national charitable causes. The Fremont Hebrew Congregation
rejoined the Union of American Hebrew Congregations in 1920. At the time it was reported that
the group had 14 full members. Louis Bach was listed as the congregation’s president and Jacob
Youngman its secretary. It is possible that the lapse in Union membership was caused by a
decline in the congregation’s numbers during the 1910s. Some Jewish families in Fremont and
surrounding areas may have chosen to affiliate themselves with larger or more traditional
congregations in Sandusky or Toledo rather than with the local Reform group. Others may not
have affiliated with any organized religious community. Additionally, not all members of the
Fremont Hebrew Congregation lived in Fremont. Households from neighboring towns,
particularly Fostoria, continued to be active. Fostoira’s Jewish community during the 1920s and
1930s was growing and evidence exists of a local Sunday school by 1931. In that same year an
effort was made by the Union of American Hebrew Congregations to establish a more organized
religious community in town affiliated with Reform Judaism. Some newer Jewish residents of
Fostoria, however, were more orthodox in their observance. These residents included Myer and
Wetel Shiff, who kept a kosher kitchen. Myer arrived in Fostoria from Toledo, and he established
the Fostoria Iron and Metal Company in 1926. The business would grow to become a major
enterprise in Fostoria lasting for decades. It is clear that both within Fremont and the
surrounding area the Jewish community was not uniform in its religious practices. These
differences in practice likely played a significant role in the establishment of Beth Israel.
Beth Israel’s Early Years
On Sunday, November 24, 1935, Beth Israel was dedicated. This was the result of over a
year’s worth of work which had begun on October 31, 1934, when an interest meeting to discuss
the formation of a new congregation was held at the home of Arthur and Dora Gilberg. Five
months before Beth Israel’s formal dedication, a room above the Somatt clothing store, located at
108 North Front Street, began to serve as a venue for congregational activities. The space was
furnished with pews and red velvet hangings. Philip and Rose Somatt were themselves recent
arrivals who moved to Fremont after 1930. The dedication service for Beth Israel began with the
assembled singing the Star-Spangled Banner and it ended with the Zionist anthem, Hatikvah. In
total, the number of attendees was estimated at around 300. Rabbi Bernard Dorfman, who
ministered to congregations in both Lima and Sandusky, delivered a sermon. The main address
of the day was given by Justin Sillman, a Columbus-based attorney who was a notable leader in
the Jewish fraternal organization B’nai B’rith. Following the dedication service, the newly
formed Ladies’ Auxiliary of Beth Israel served a buffet luncheon. It appears that the young
congregation also had sufficient funds to hire its own rabbi, Samuel Zakuto. Samuel was the
son of Gabriel Zakuto, a rabbi in Canton, Ohio, and in 1930 he ministered to a congregation in
New Castle, Pennsylvania. A resident rabbi did not remain in Fremont for long, however, and
by 1936 Beth Israel was served by visiting rabbis, including Allen Tarshish of Columbus and
Jacob Klein of Cleveland. The first officers of Beth Israel were as follows: Samuel Zakuto,
Rabbi, Philip Somatt, president, Arthur Gilberg, secretary, and Samuel Lichtenstein, treasurer.
The members of the Fremont Hebrew Congregation, also called the Fremont Temple by
1936, did not immediately join with Beth Israel. While it appears that by the mid-1930s the
group only organized religious services during Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, these continued
to be held separately at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church on Park Avenue until at least 1938. Beth
Israel by contrast held weekly Shabbat services. This was likely the first time in Fremont’s
history that such regular Jewish services were organized in town. The merging of Beth Israel and
the Fremont Hebrew Congregation likely took place in 1940. This date is chosen because it is
when Fremont’s formerly separate Jewish women’s organizations united. This united group,
newly named the Beth Israel Sisterhood, would play a leading role in the development of Jewish
life in Fremont.
When the Ladies Auxiliary of Beth Israel was formed on November 11, 1935, it had 18
members. By 1937, its membership had increased to 24. The first officers of the Auxiliary
were: Rena Wolf, president, Mrs. J. Rosenblatt, vice president, Anne Bloom, secretary, and
Sophia Spungen, treasurer. The Auxiliary helped to support Beth Israel financially and its
members organized for other charitable causes in Fremont. The women also sponsored a Sunday
school, which in 1938 had 27 students, its largest enrollment to date. Some students such as
Gloria Burger, Rudolph Cohn, and Matiel Preis, lived in Fostoria. It should also be noted that a
Jewish men’s organization existed in Fremont by 1938. Its members sponsored social activities,
including dances and it likely merged into the Sandusky B’nai B’rith Lodge by the 1950s.
Members included Arthur Gilberg, Samuel Lichtenstein, Irving Naftulin, and Anthony Wolf.
The growth in Fremont’s Jewish life during the 1930s was possible in part because of an
influx of new Jewish residents that occurred around this time. Some of these households,
including Gilberg, Naftulin, Somatt, and Spungen have already been referenced. Arthur and Dora
Gilberg moved to Fremont after Art took a position with Joseph’s Department Store around
1933. Irving and Jean Naftulin arrived after Irv opened a dental practice on South Front Street in
1930. This practice would remain in Fremont until 1965. Louis and Sophia Spungen came to
Fremont from Cleveland in 1933 to open a furniture store at the corner of Croghan and Arch
streets. Other families who came to Fremont in the early 1930s were Irving and May Adelson,
Albert and Annette Copperman, and Helen and Louis Danziger. Irving and May moved to
Fremont from Cleveland to open an auto parts store. While in Fremont, Irving was active with
the Chamber of Commerce and May was a member of the Beth Israel Sisterhood. Like the
Adelsons, Albert and Annette also moved to Fremont from Cleveland to open a business. This
business, the Fruit Arcade, was first located on Front Street across from the Jackson Hotel and
then on North Arch Street. The produce store opened in 1933 and was sold in 1967.
Similar to the Gilbergs, Louis Danziger was drawn to Fremont because of Joseph’s
Department Store. In 1931, he took a position as manager of the store, and he would be the
leader of the company until his retirement in 1975. Louis purchased Joseph’s from Barney
Joseph, the son of Jacob, who was the store’s founder. During Louis’ time as head of the store,
he saw the business through many years of growth and laid the groundwork for two satellite
stores to open, one in Defiance and the other in Tiffin. He also helped to rebuild Joseph’s
Fremont location after two major fires, one in 1948 and the other in 1950. During the 1948 fire
a local firefighter, George Kettner lost his life while working to stop the flames. In 1936 Louis
married Helen Rosner in Detroit. Helen would become active in the Ladies’ Auxiliary of Beth
Israel, and serve as the organization’s president, while Louis was involved with the Chamber of
Commerce. The couple also supported the local YMCA and Rotary.
As Fremont’s Jewish population grew, the members of Beth Israel began to seek out a
larger space for their congregation’s activities. An opportunity presented itself when the
Holderman property on the corner of Birchard and Park avenues was put up for sale. The
property was purchased and on Sunday, August 30, 1942, the new Temple Beth Israel was
dedicated. Over 200 guests attended the event at 514 Birchard Avenue including Amer Wrigley,
the Mayor of Fremont, who gave an address. Louis Spungen, the president of Beth Israel, and
Hortense Rosenbush, the president of the Sisterhood also spoke. Rabbis Charles Freund of
Toledo and Carl Miller of Elyria assisted with parts of the dedication service. Other components
of the service were led by Abe Wollmen, who was a leader of B’nai B’rith in Columbus and a
relative of the Danzigers. At the time of its dedication, the members of Temple Beth Israel
comprised 18 households. Congregational leaders involved with the sale included Harold
Danziger, Samuel Lichtenstein, Joseph Michles, Marcus Michles, Philip Somatt, and Louis
Some of these congregants came from areas outside of Sandusky County. One such
member was Isaac Grobman of Fostoria, who is credited with donating a Torah scroll to Beth
Israel after it was founded in 1935. Other members of the Grobman family, including Lillian
and William, also lived in Fostoria. Both husband and wife were active members of the wider
community. Lillian, who was related to the Danzigers through her sister, Ruth, was involved with
the Memorial Hospital Auxiliary. William was a charter member of the Fostoria Lion’s Club
and active with the Elks and Masons. Bessie and Jack Burger along with Bertrice and Jacob
Preis are examples of other couples in Fostoria affiliated with Beth Israel. In Norwalk Bess and
Harry Berezin were affiliated with Beth Israel. Harry, who was recognized as Norwalk’s “Man of
the Year” in 1954 was the owner of The Fashion Shoppe from 1925 until his retirement in 1969.
In Tiffin lived the Rosenblatt family, who supported themselves by owning a scrap metal
yard. Other contemporary Beth Israel members came from Port Clinton and Findley.
World War II and its Effects on Fremont’s Jewish Community
On December 07, 1941, the United States entered World War II after the attack on Pearl
Harbor. At least six Jews in Fremont are known to have served out of an estimated population of
85. Their names are Sidney Breslow, John Gottschalk, Irving Naftulin, Emerson Reed, Richard
Newman Sr., and Stuart Wolf. Sidney Breslow was a relative of the Danzingers who had worked
at Joseph’s since approximately 1940. Stuart Wolf was the son of Anthony and Rena Wolf and a
noted student-athlete at Bowling Green State University. Irving Naftulin served as a lieutenant in
the United States Army Dental Corps. During the war he was the recipient of both the Bronze
Star and the Silver Star. The Bronze Star was awarded after Naftulin saved four men after a
hospital was bombed, while the Silver Star was awarded later in the war, when Naftulin rescued
three men who were trapped in a burning ambulance. Emerson Reed worked in the shoe
department of Joseph’s, and his wife, Dorothy was an active member of the Beth Israel
Sisterhood. John Gottschalk was the son of Ernest and Theresa, and the family had come to
Fremont in 1938 as refugees from Nazi Germany. Once established in the city, Ernest opened a
The Gottschalks were not the only refugees from Germany who found their way to
Fremont in the late 1930s and early 1940s. Fred and Rena Davids moved to Fremont in 1941
after living in the United States for around two years. Fred would work as the manager of the
Puritan Clothing Store on Front Street until 1971. Rena was an active member of the Beth
Israel Sisterhood. Several months later in 1942, Abraham and Mathilde Srog arrived in Fremont
after spending two years in Chicago. While in Fremont the couple operated Bechberger’s
alongside their son, Ludwig and his wife, Harriette. Ludwig and Harriette would later become
involved with Rotary, and in 1964 Ludwig was elected the group’s president. Another refugee
who spent time in Fremont was Thaddeus Stabholz. Thaddeus, who was also known as Ted, was
born in Warsaw, Poland and he attended the University of Warsaw for medical school. After the
Nazis occupied the city, Ted was among the over 460,000 Jews imprisoned in the Warsaw
Ghetto. Despite the dangerous conditions in the Ghetto, Ted continued his medical studies in
secret alongside other students, and he worked at the Ghetto’s hospital 12 hours a day. After the
Ghetto was liquidated in 1942, he was sent to Treblinka, an extermination camp northeast of
Warsaw. He later spent time in both Auschwitz and Dachau. By the time Dachau was liberated
by the United States Army on April 29, 1945, Ted weighed only 70 pounds. In 1947 Ted
married Eva Weinstein and the couple arrived in Nork York City in 1948. Ted practiced medicine
in Fremont from 1955 to 1966 before moving to Canton in 1966.
It should also be noted that at least one Jewish refugee from Europe settled in Fostoria.
Frank Schanzer arrived in the United States in 1940 and shortly thereafter he moved to Fostoria,
where he worked as a manager for the Endicott-Johnson Shoe Company for 23 years. Frank also
served in the United States Army during the war as part of the 65th Infantry Division. He became
an American citizen while in the service. It is possible that Fremont and Fostoria became places
of settlement for Jewish refugees in-part because of the efforts of local Jewish women. These
efforts found expression in 1938 when Jewish women living in Fostoria, Fremont, and Tiffin
came together to create a Hadassah chapter. Hadassah, which continues to exist as an
international Jewish women’s organization, works to support many charitable causes, particularly
in Israel. The local Hadassah chapter, which was sometimes referred to as the Fostoria Chapter,
raised money to support refugees from Europe. Members of the Jewish community also
organized to support the war effort. For example, in March 1942 proceeds from the Sunday
School children’s Purim carnival were used to purchase a $25 defense bond. Purim is a festive
Jewish holiday typically celebrated in February or March. Beth Israel also participated in
interfaith efforts. As an example, on June 06, 1944, special services were organized by the
congregation to pray for the success of the D-Day Landing.
The Postwar Years: Jewish Life in Fremont 1945 to 1968
During the late 1940s to the early 1960s Fremont’s Jewish community likely reached its
peak in numbers. An estimated 50 families were affiliated with Beth Israel. For part of this
period, Beth Israel continued to meet weekly on Fridays for a Shabbat service, and all major
Jewish holidays were celebrated. Visiting student rabbis from Hebrew Union College in
Cincinnati or the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York City continued to minister to the
congregation. Student rabbis seem to have been contracted for at most two years, and they
included Joseph Asher, who was in Fremont during 1948, and Sheldon Kirsch, who served from
1965 to 1966. Rabbi Asher was a native of Australia who had come to Hebrew Union College to
obtain his Ph.D. Prior to this, he had served as a chaplain in the Australian Army and he was
president of the Australian Jewish War Veterans Association. Rabbi Kirsch was a native of
Detroit who studied at the Jewish Theological Seminary. Following his time in Fremont, he
became a navy chaplain. The sanctuary of Beth Israel could seat around 65 people and the
Temple also had a library, study area, meeting rooms, and a kosher kitchen. Religious education
classes for children continued to be offered every Sunday.
Younger members of Beth Israel also participated in activities sponsored by the Ohio
Valley Federation of Temple Youth (OVFTY). This organization, which continues to exist well
into the 21st century as part of the National Federation of Temple Youth (NFTY), includes in its
membership Jewish youths living in many areas of Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio. OVFTY
programs during the 1950s and 1960s included gatherings, called Conclaves, where children and
teens could mingle across cities. Conclaves were typically held in larger cities, such as
Cincinnati, and included dances, religious services and group meals.
The Beth Israel Sisterhood had around 40 members by the late 1940s who represented
Fremont, Fostoria, Tiffin, Norwalk, and Findley. The group met monthly, and their activities
included organizing an annual Chanukah party for children at Beth Israel, a yearly luncheon at
the Hotel Fremont, and the production of an annual yearbook. In 1945, committees for the
Sisterhood were as follows: Sunday school, ways and means, sales tax, house and kitchen,
telephone, membership and hospitality, war service, program, uniongrams and calendars, Jewish
welfare, and cradle roll. Some of the charitable activities organized by the Sisterhood were
quite large. For example, in 1947 its members collected 20 cartons of food and 600 pounds of
clothing to support overseas refugees. During the late 1940s, Fremont’s Jewish community
also organized to support the United Jewish Appeal. For the 1948-1949 campaign year the local
quota was set at $25,000.
Interfaith activities were also an important part of Temple Beth Israel. As early as 1942,
the editors of the Fremont News-Messenger remarked, “Beth Israel congregation is ever willing
to cooperate with the other churches of the city and help make Fremont a leader in the pathways
of better understanding.” The interfaith programs organized by Beth Israel included an annual
community seder and adult education opportunities. On November 26, 1948, Beth Israel
organized an interfaith Shabbat service that was attended by around 100 people. Church youth
groups also periodically visited Beth Israel to learn about Judaism. Some Jewish children in
Fremont also attended church when invited by Christian friends. It is of note that anti-Jewish
sentiment in Fremont and surrounding towns was low. The only explicitly anti-Jewish action
which has been recorded occurred in 1914 when the Fostoria Daily Times published an
advertisement from a new town merchant that proclaimed he was “neither Hebrew nor
foreigner”. The ad drew condemnation from The Jewish Independent in Cleveland, and it seems
no more ads like it were published. Thirty years later in 1944 a vase sitting on the porch of
Beth Israel was taken and smashed in front of the temple. The particular motivation for this
act, however, is not recorded.
By 1960 services at Beth Israel were being offered twice a month. In 1964 the Beth Israel
Sunday school had 26 pupils enrolled. Two years later, Beth Israel organized a dinner at the
Fremont Country Club to celebrate its diamond anniversary. This shows that by this time the
congregation saw itself as a direct continuation of the Fremont Hebrew Temple which was
founded in 1891. Guests at the anniversary celebration included Mayor Walter Zahn, Monsignor
Carl Scheib of St. Joseph Catholic Church, and Reverend James Konrad of the First United
Church of Christ. Families affiliated with Beth Israel during the postwar years who have not
already been mentioned included Milton and Reva Ascherman, Gerald and Gloria Dorsky, and
Evelyn and Leonard Eisler. Milton and Reva operated a jewelry store on South Front Street from
1939 to 1959. Milton was an active supporter of Jaycees and the YMCA, while Reva was a
member of the Beth Israel Sisterhood. Gerald and Gloria Dorsky arrived in Fremont in 1958
after Gerald opened a new optometry practice in town. This practice would remain open until
2001 when Gerald retired. Gloria was involved with the Beth Israel Sisterhood and the
Women’s Auxiliary of Memorial Hospital. Gerald was active in the Fremont Community
Theater, Lions Club, and Toastmasters. He also served in the navy during World War II.
Evelyn and Leonard Eisler moved to Fremont between 1935 and 1940 after Leonard took a
position as manager of the Seegle Shore Store. After one year of work, Leonard purchased the
store and owned it until 1971 when he moved to San Francisco with Evelyn to be near their sons
Ben and Marc. During their time in Fremont, the Eislers would be active members of Beth Israel
and help to create the Sandusky County School for the Retarded, which is now known as the
Sandusky County Board of Developmental Disabilities.
Joseph’s Department Store also continued to draw new Jewish residents to Fremont. In
1939, Ben and Esther Pollak arrived in Fremont so that Ben could open a jewelry counter inside
Joseph’s. Ben’s son, Bruce continued the business after his father and eventually created an
independent store, Pollak Jewelers. Other Jewish employees of Joseph’s during the 1950s or
1960s included Samuel Danziger, Robert Gilberg, and Dave Warsell. By the mid-1970s Joseph’s
was the site of some religious services in town. These services were organized when requested
by members of the Jewish community. It is possible that these observances were called most
frequently when individuals wished to recognize the yahrzeit, or anniversary of a family
member’s death, by reciting the Kaddish prayer. Traditionally, this prayer can only be said with a
gathering of ten Jews.
Around 1967 the Beth Israel Sunday School was discontinued. Any Jewish children
remaining in Fremont or the surrounding area began to travel to Sandusky or Toledo for formal
religious instruction. This development was a sign that Fremont’s Jewish community was aging
significantly by the mid-1960s as younger members moved away for university or other
opportunities. Many longtime members of Fremont’s Jewish community also began to retire and
move away or pass on. Simultaneously the number of new Jewish residents arriving in Fremont
decreased dramatically. This demographic decrease was reflected in the town overall. Between
1960 and 1970 Fremont’s overall population decreased by an estimated 277 people. This
population loss accelerated over the next decade and it has continued into the 21st century.
The Closing of Beth Israel
Despite the loss in membership, Beth Israel continued to be active throughout the late
1960s and 1970s. On August 02, 1970, Beth Israel was the site of its first and only wedding
when Juanita Nominee and Marc Eisler were married. By 1975 it was estimated that 25
families continued to be affiliated with Beth Israel. Services were held once a month on a Friday
evening and on major Jewish holidays. One of the later families to affiliate with Beth Israel
were the Newmans. This family began its start in Fremont in 1940 after Nannette, the daughter
of Dorris and Solomon Hyman, married Richard Newman. Richard met Nannette after moving to
Fremont to take a job with the S.E. Hyman Company. He would become the Vice President and
Treasurer of S.E. Hyman by 1960. The Beth Israel Sisterhood also continued to be active into the
1970s. In 1969 the group consisted of 24 members who continued to organize interfaith
programs, bake sales, and rummage sales. The proceeds from these fundraisers went to support
Beth Israel and community nonprofits, including the Betty Jane Memorial Rehabilitation Center
in Tiffin. This center had been supported by the Sisterhood since at least 1960. The group also
sent care packages to American soldiers serving in Vietnam. It is also of note that at least one
member of the local Jewish community, Richard Markoff served in the United States Army
during the Vietnam War. Lieutenant Markoff was a native of Fostoria and the son of Carolyn and
Jack, owners of the Fremont Iron and Metal Company. Carolyn’s maiden name was Shiff.
By the late 1970s, Fremont’s Jewish community had diminished further, and in 1980 the
trustees of Beth Israel put their synagogue up for sale. Fifteen households were members of the
congregation immediately prior to its closing. In 1981 the Sandusky County Historical Society
purchased the property, which continues to be its center well into the 21st century. The final
trustees of Beth Israel involved with the sale were as follows: Robert Gilberg, Nannette
Newman, and Bruce Pollak. It is of note that Robert was the son of Arthur and Dora Gilberg who
had worked to establish Beth Israel 46 years before. He would remain in Fremont with his wife,
Elaine until Joseph’s closed in 1984. A portion of the proceeds from the sale of Beth Israel was
used to create a scholarship at Ross High School for “average students” who planned to enroll in
a college or university. This component of the Beth Israel Scholarship was chosen after the
observation was made that several scholarships had already been established at Ross High
School for students at the top of their class. Other funds from the sale were donated to
Congregation B’nai Israel in Toledo and Congregation Oheb Shalom in Sandusky. Each
congregation also received a Torah scroll from Beth Israel. The congregation’s yahrzeit plaque
was accepted by Oheb Shalom. Several of Beth Israel’s remaining members also joined Oheb
Shalom as a group around 1980.
While the closing of Beth Israel marked an end to organized Jewish life in Sandusky
County, it did not mean that Jews ceased to live in Fremont. Families who remained in Fremont
following the sale of Beth Israel included the Danzigers, Fairalls, Gilbergs, Michles, Newmans,
and Pollaks. Jewish families also continued to occasionally gather in private homes to celebrate
Shabbat and the Jewish holidays until at least the late 1990s. At least three Shabbat services
were organized at the Dillon House after Beth Israel closed. Several Jewish residents continued
to be active in community organizations. For example, during the 1990s, Richard Newman Jr.
served on the Fremont Board of Education and the board of Memorial Hospital. Many other
organizations Fremont’s Jewish residents helped to build continue to exist. Fremont and
surrounding towns remain home to a small number of Jewish residents into the 21st century.
1 “Jewish Temple is Organized,” Fremont Messenger, June 28, 1935. 2 “Congregations,” Occident (Philadelphia), December 01, 1856. 3 "Notice," Fremont Journal, September 14, 1855. 4 Basil Meek, Twentieth Century History of Sandusky County, Ohio Representative Citizens, (Chicago: Richmond-Arnold Publishing Co, 1909) 928. 5 “The Germans in America,” The Library of Congress, April 23, 2014, https://www.loc.gov/rr/european/imde/germchro.html. 6 Basil Meek, Twentieth Century History of Sandusky County, Ohio Representative Citizens, (Chicago: Richmond-Arnold Publishing Co, 1909) 451. 7 Ibid. 8 Fremont Weekly Freeman, June 14, 1851, p 4. 9 “Oakwood Cemetery Burial Guide and Survey Form for Non-Eastern-European Cemeteries IAJGC CemeteryProject,” Toledo Lucas County Public Library Digital Collections, May 07, 2018, https://ohiomemory.org/digital/collection/p16007coll33/id/105311/rec/5. 10 Steve Hammond, "Mayer Frankel: A Tale from the National Archives’ Service and Pension Records," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 135, no. 4 (2011): 569. 11 "Frankel Services Scheduled Monday," Fremont News-Messenger, April 15, 1949. 12 “Joseph’s Department Store Legacy Goes Back 120 Years,” Fremont News-Messenger, November 01, 1984. 13 Ibid. 14 Roy Wilhelm, "Dryfoos Clothiers Set the Pace for Fremont, Set Trends Before 1900," Fremont News-Messenger, May 20, 2015. 15 "Louis Bach, 87, Pioneer, Dies in Cleveland," Freemont Messenger, April 22, 1935. 16 "Jacob L. Youngman, Veteran Fremont Businessman, Succumbs," Fremont News-Messenger, March 09, 1939. 17 Ibid. 18 "Retired School Teacher Taken," Fremont News-Messenger, November 27, 1941. 19 "Friends Mourn Sudden Death of Jacob Dach," Fremont Messenger, July 13, 1931. 20 "Ike Dryfoos New Member of Health Board," Fremont Daily Messenger, January 03, 1924. 21 "Dr. Louis Dryfoos Dies at His Home in New York City," Fremont Daily Messenger, December 02, 1920. 22 "Miss Gusdorf Death Victim," Fremont Messenger, December 06, 1935. 23 "I. E. Gusdorf Found Dead in Garage," Fremont Messenger, January 28, 1929. 24 Basil Meek, Twentieth Century History of Sandusky County, Ohio Representative Citizens, (Chicago: Richmond-Arnold Publishing Co, 1909) 929. 25 Gloria Ulmer, “Fremont Population Dwindles: Jews in Small-Town Ohio Losing Out,” Cleveland Jewish News, September 05, 1975. 26 “Beth Israel Temple Notes its Diamond Anniversary,” Fremont News-Messenger, May 17, 1966. 27 “Congregational,” Reform Advocate (Chicago), December 02, 1893. 28 "Block-Jandorf," Buffalo Enquirer, March 18, 1907. 29 "Moses Solomon Taken in Death Tuesday Night, Fremont Messenger, June 16, 1937. 30 “A.C.S. JEAVONS, INC, : Ohio (US) : OpenCorporates,” Accessed March 06, 2021, https://opencorporates.com/companies/us_oh/178229. 31 "Aaron Mahler is Claimed in Death," Fremont News-Messenger, October 04, 1939. 32 "Will Bury Body of Louis Wolf in Oakwood Cemetery," Fremont Daily Messenger, July 07, 1919. 33 “Fremont, Ohio,” Hebrew Standard (New York), January 15, 1904. 34 Henrietta Szold, “Directory of Local Organizations,” The American Jewish Yearbook 5668 (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1907) 361. 35 Ibid. 36 “Membership,” Thirty-Third Annual Report of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, June 17, 1907. 37 “Beth Israel Temple Notes its Diamond Anniversary,” Fremont News-Messenger, May 17, 1966. 38 Janet Conway, "Dean of Norwalk Businessman is 85," Norwalk Reflector, September 15, 1972. 39 Obituary of Rosa [sic] Oppenheimer, Jewish Review and Observer (Cleveland), December 05, 1913. 40 “Local,” American Israelite, September 24, 1914. 41 Herman Bernstein, “Statistics of Jews,” The American Jewish Yearbook 5675 (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1914), p 372. 42 "Mrs. J. Youngman Beloved Wife and Mother is Dead," Fremont Daily Messenger, June 01, 1920 43 Obituary of Samuel Cohen, Journal Herald (Dayton), December 03, 1953. 44 Obituary of Louis Michles, Fremont News-Messenger, February 24, 1966. 45 Obituary of Marcus J. Michles, Fremont News-Messenger, May 28, 1994. 46 Roy Wilhelm, "From Clothing to Upholstery, S.E. Hyman Served City," Fremont News-Messenger, April 21, 2015. 47 Dennis Newman, “Jewish Business Persons: History of Fremont Ohio,” email of text, March 11, 2021. 48 Ibid. 49 Obituary of Dorris L. Hyman, Fremont News-Messenger, August 14, 1975. 50 “Union of American Hebrew Congregations,” Reform Advocate (Chicago), March 18, 1922. 51 “Register of Congregations,” Proceedings of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations Forty-Seventh Annual Report November 1, 1919 to October 31, 1920, July 1921. 52 Proceedings of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations 1931, p 162. 53 Rick Markoff, “Fostoria Jewish Community,” email of original May 13, 2020 text, March 17, 2021. 54 “Jewish Temple is Organized,” Fremont Messenger, June 28, 1935. 55 “Jewish Temple was Dedicated With Ceremony,” Fremont Messenger, November 25, 1935. 56 Ibid. 57 "Noted Speakers at Dedication of New Temple," Fremont Messenger, November 20, 1935. 58 “Cornerstone to be Placed,” Hamilton Daily News (Hamilton, OH), October 25, 1930. 59 “Jewish Temple was Dedicated With Ceremony,” Fremont Messenger, November 25, 1935. 60 “Union Services Being Planned in New Temple,” Fremont News-Messenger, September 01, 1942. 61 “Have Auxiliary of Beth Israel,” Fremont Messenger, February 02, 1937. 62 Ibid. 63 Amy Hyman, “Fremont News,” Toledo Jewish Times, October 21, 1938. 64 Daniel Carson, "Fremont Dentist Plays Role in WWII Documentary," Fremont News-Messenger, October 21, 2016. 65 "New Furniture Store Planned," Fremont Messenger, July 14, 1933. 66 Obituary of Irving Adelson, Fremont News-Messenger, July 26, 1966. 67 Obituary of Annette Copperman, Fremont News-Messenger, November 19, 1985. 68 “Danziger Family,” Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Library & Museums, accessed March 09, 2021, https://www.rbhayes.org/collection-items/local-history-collections/danziger-family/. 69 "Death Claims Barney Joseph at His Home," Fremont News-Messenger, November 13, 1943. 70 “Joseph’s Department Store Legacy Goes Back 120 Years,” News-Messenger, November 01, 1984. 71 “Danziger Family,” Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Library & Museums, https://www.rbhayes.org/collection-items/local-history-collections/danziger-family/. 72 Larry and Krista Michaels, “History Spotlight: Joseph’s Department Store Fire,” Fremont News-Messenger, February 01, 2018. 73 “Danziger Family,” Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Library & Museums, https://www.rbhayes.org/collection-items/local-history-collections/danziger-family/. 74 “Beth Israel is Factor in City,” Fremont News-Messenger, July 30, 1949. 75 “Union Services Being Planned in New Temple,” Fremont News-Messenger, September 01, 1942. 76 “Fremont Temple Dedicated,” Jewish Independent (Cleveland), September 11, 1942. 77 Ibid. 78 "Surprise Party Tendered Somatt," Fremont News-Messenger, December 13, 1940. 79 Obituary of Mrs. Lillian Grobman, Fremont News-Messenger, February 10, 1969. 80 Obituary of William Grobman, Fremont News-Messenger, July 25, 1961. 81 "Longtime Merchant Dies at 76," Norwalk Reflector, December 12, 1971. 82 “Services Held for Third Day,” Fremont Messenger, September 27, 1938. 83 H. S. Linfield, Jewish Communities of the United States: Number and Distribution of Jews of the United States in Urban Places and Rural Territory (Philadelphia: American Jewish Committee, 1940), 257. 84 Daniel Carson, "Fremont Dentist Plays Role in WWII Documentary," Fremont News-Messenger, October 21, 2016. 85 Obituary of Ernest Gottschalk, Fremont News-Messenger, February 15, 1974. 86 Obituary of Fred Davids, Fremont News-Messenger, January 10, 1983 87 "Rites Tuesday for Abraham Srog, 75," Fremont News-Messenger, April 01, 1950. 88 "Ludwig Srog Becomes President of Rotary," Fremont News-Messenger, July 07, 1964. 89 Obituary of Thaddeus Stabholz, Repository (Canton), March 24, 2009. 90 Ibid. 91 "Frank S. Schanzer Dies, 80; A Refugee From Nazi Regime," Cleveland Jewish News, January 29, 1988. 92 Amy Hyman, “Fremont News,” Toledo Jewish Times, October 21, 1938. 93 “Carnival by Children to Buy Defense Bond,” Fremont News-Messenger, March 09, 1942. 94 “Fremont Calm on Attack Day,” Fremont News-Messenger, June 06, 1944. 95 Gloria Ulmer, “Fremont Population Dwindles: Jews in Small-Town Ohio Losing Out,” Cleveland Jewish News, September 05, 1975. 96 "Rites Planned at Beth Israel," Fremont News-Messenger, November 24, 1948. 97 "Student Rabbi Ending Service in Fremont: To be Navy Chaplain," Fremont News-Messenger, June 06, 1966. 98 Interview with Marc Eisler, March 16, 2021. 99 “Sisterhood of Beth Israel Temple in Initial Session,” Fremont News-Messenger, September 21, 1948. 100 “Sisterhood of Beth Israel Temple Holds a Delightful Annual Luncheon at Hotel,” Fremont News-Messenger, June 07, 1945. 101 “Sisterhood of Beth Israel Temple in Initial Session,” Fremont News-Messenger, September 21, 1948. 102 “Drive for Jewish Relief Fund Set,” Fremont News-Messenger, October 15, 1948. 103 “Union Services Being Planned in New Temple,” Fremont News-Messenger, September 01, 1942. 104 Interview with Marc Eisler, March 16, 2021. 105 “Neither Hebrew Nor Foreigner,” Jewish Independent, July 31, 1914. 106 Fremont News-Messenger, October 23, 1944, p 2. 107 “Beth Israel Sisterhood Pays Tribute to Mrs. S.E. Hyman as Outstanding Member for Year,” Fremont News-Messenger, June 04, 1964. 108 “Beth Israel Temple Notes its Diamond Anniversary,” Fremont News-Messenger, May 17, 1966. 109 Obituary of Milton Ascherman, Fremont News-Messenger, November 22, 1983. 110 Rick Neale, "Longtime Fremont Optometrist, Dr. Gerald Dorsky, Retiring After 53 Years of Eye Care," Fremont News-Messenger, November 27, 2001. 111 "Sisterhood Promotes Judaism," Fremont News-Messenger, October 07, 1969. 112 Obituary of Gerald Dorsky, Cleveland Jewish News, August 30, 2013. 113 Obituary of Leonard Eisler, Fremont News-Messenger, April 01, 1994. 114 Gloria Ulmer, “Fremont Population Dwindles: Jews in Small-Town Ohio Losing Out,” Cleveland Jewish News, September 05, 1975. 115 Ibid. 116 Interview with Marc Eisler, March 16, 2021. 117 Ibid. 118 “Sisterhood Informed of Progress at Betty Jane Center,” Fremont News-Messenger, January 17, 1961. 119 "Sisterhood Promotes Judaism," Fremont News-Messenger, October 07, 1969. 120 Dennis Newman, “Brief History of the Fremont Temple,” email of original January 2005 text, March 10, 2021. 121 Ibid. 122 "Education, Community Priorities for Newman," Fremont News-Messenger, August 30, 2000.
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